*Lavater: Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801), was a Swiss thinker and theological author. A close friend of J. G. Herder and J. W. Goethe, with ties to J. G. Hamann, Lavater wrote religious poetry and theological works.
*Lavatern: Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801), Swiss thinker and theological author. A close friend of Johann Gottfried Herder and Johann Wolfgang Goethe, with ties to Johann Georg Hamann, Lavater wrote religious poetry and theological works.
Leibniz: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), philosopher, mathematician and author, one of the most influential figures of the German Enlightenment.
Lichtenberg: Georg Christoph Lichtenberg 1742-1799. A physicist and author, he was Kästner's student in Göttingen. His fame was based on his texts on experimental physics, as well as his literary essays and aphorisms.
Ludwig des XIV. Louis XIV, 1638-1715, ruled France from 1643 until his death in 1715. He was often called the Roi Soleil (Sun King).
Luthers: Martin Luther (1483-1546), a German reformer who broke off from the Catholic church in 1520. His writings laid the foundation for later Protestant religions; one of his greatest achievements was his translation of the Bible into German.
König Ludwig II: Probably Ludwig II of Bavaria (1845-1886), the son of Maximilian II. Ludwig ascended to the throne at the death of his father in 1864, and ruled until 1886, when he was removed from power due to his increasing insanity. He committed suicide shortly thereafter. Ludwig was an avid supporter of Richard Wagner. During his reign, he constructed several exotic palaces, most notably Neuschwanstein, Herrenchiemsee and Linderhof.
Lykurg: Probably Lycurgus, the renowned Spartan lawgiver whose work was foundational for most Spartan social and political institutions between the 9th and the 6th centuries B.C.
Maintenon: Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, 1635-1719 was reared on Martinique as a Calvinist, but later converted to Catholicism. From 1669 she served as governess to the children of King Louis XIV of France. The King first took her as his mistress and then, at the death of the queen, formalized the relationship through marriage.
Marien Feodorownen: Maria Feodorowna, 1759-1828, was the second wife of Emperor Pavel I of Russia, and daughter-in-law of Catherine the Great.
Martens: Possibly Kurt Martens (1870-1945), an author with ties to Thomas Mann, who was co-founder of the “Literarische Gesellschaft” in Leipzig. Martens was a strong critic of the decadence of modern society, which he portrayed ironically in his works.
Mendelsohns: Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) an important philosopher who made the ideas of the Enlightenment accessible to the reading public. Mendelssohn was a close friend and associate of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing.
Mengs: Probably a reference to Anton Raphael Mengs, 1728-1779, an artist who was taught by his father Ismael, also an artist from Copenhagen. Mengs belonged to the circle around J.J. Winckelmann in Rome. His work was influenced by Raphael and Correggio.
Merciers: Possibly Barthélemi Mercier (1734-1799), a French librarian and author.
Merkel: Garlieb Merkel (1769-1850) a Livonian by birth, went to Weimar in 1797, where he was closely associated with J. Herder. In 1800 he moved to Berlin, where, with A. Kotzebue, he edited the journal Ernst und Scherz during the years 1804-06. He published his work Die Letten in 1797.
Mirabeau: Honoré Gabriel de Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau (1749-1791) was an important French political figure and revolutionist. In 1789 he was elected by the people to the National Assembly, where he pushed for constitutional reform. In 1790 he became President of the Jacobin Club, and in 1791 the President of the National Assembly. His sudden death opened the way for more radical developments of the French Revolution.
Moltke: The aristocratic Moltke family was located in Mecklenburg from 1254. One branch emigrated to Denmark in 1600, representatives of which were raised to the level of duke in 1750.
Mombert: Alfred Mombert (1872-1942), a German poet who left his career as an attorney to dedicate himself to poetry. A member of the Kosmiker group, he is recognized as a precursor of Expressionism. As a Jew, in 1933 he was barred from the Preußische Akademie der Dichtkunst, and in 1940 was interned in a concentration camp. His poetry conveys a sense of mystical vision.
Frau von Montespan: Françoise Athénais, Marquise de Montespan, (1641-1707), was a lady-in-waiting to Maria Theresia, the Queen of France. A mistress of the King, Louis XIV, she was forced out by her rival, Madame de Maintenon. In 1691 she left Versailles and entered a convent.
Mösers patriotischen Phantasien: Justus Möser, 1720-1794, was a German historian and journalist who at various times published a weekly newspaper. His Patriotische Phantasien appeared in four volumes between the years 1774 and 1786. He was a friend of J.W. Goethe.
Marie Antoinette: Queen Marie Antoinette (1755-1793), the daughter of the Austrian Emperor Franz I and Empress Maria Theresia, married king Louis XVI of France. Unpopular among the people, she was executed in 1793, a few months after her husband, by proponents of the revolution.
Karl May: Karl May (1842-1912), the son of a weaver, was a gifted student who became a teacher but, because of bad choices due to financial exigencies, repeatedly completed prison sentences. He began his career as an author by writing Dorfgeschichten and Humoresken for newspapers, then turned to adventure stories of heroic deeds in “exotic” lands such as North America among the Native Americans, the setting for one of his most famous works, Old Shatterhand.
Mozartische: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), an Austrian by birth, is recognized as one of the most innovative, influential and renowned European composers and musicians.
Müller: Probably Friedrich Müller, 1749-1825, also called Maler Müller. From 1774, Müller lived in Mannheim, where he was the court artist; it was here that he wrote his most important literary works, many of which appeared in the Göttinger Musenalmanach. Through J.W. Goethe's intercession, he moved to Rome in 1778, where he remained until his death. Initially influenced by S. Gessner and F.G. Klopstock, Müller wrote in the style of Sturm und Drang.
Müller: Otto Frederik Müller, 1730-1784, a Danish naturalist who devoted himself to systematically researching European flora and fauna, especially insects and crustaceans. He was one of the first to systematically order bacteria.
Neanders: Probably Joachim Neander (1650-1680), the author of fifty-seven protestant hymns; for some of the texts he also composed the music.
Neefe: Christian Gottlob Neefe, 1748-1798. A prominent musician, he was the teacher and patron of the young L. van Beethoven.
Nerons: The Roman emperor Nero (37-68), who reigned from 54-68 A.D., was characterized by his brutality against perceived or real competitors and enemies. He also actively persecuted the Christians.
Niebuhr: Carsten Niebuhr, 1733-1815. Between 1761-1767, in the Danish service, Niebuhr traveled from Egypt to Persia, through the southern parts of Arabia, and around the northern Red Sea. He recorded his experiences in travel journals, which he later published.
Nietzsches “Geburt der Tragödie”: Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) was an original and influential German philosopher and author who is perhaps best known for his concept of the Übermensch. His philosophical treatise Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik (1872) locates the origin of Greek tragedy in the Dionysian chorus, and expounds the idea that Greek tragedy existed in the tension between two opposing forces: the Apollonian (form) and the Dionysian (ecstatic, chaotic creativity).
Noverre: Jean Georges Noverre, (1727-1810), was a French dancer, ballet master, and theoretician. He reformed the rigid style of Baroque ballet and founded the romantic Aktions-Ballet.
Orlow in Petersburg: Probably Grigorij Grigorjevich, 1734-1783, Count (1762) and Reichsfürst (1772), a consort of Catherine II. During the years 1766-1772, Count Orlov built a magnificent palace in Gattschina, Russia.
Paradieß: Marie Therese Paradies (1759-1824), a musician who became blind in her 4th year of age. As a child she performed as a singer and organist. In 1784 she toured through Europe, where she was much admired as a singer and pianist. After the death of her father, she opened a very successful music school for girls. She also composed operas and pieces for piano.
Parnassiens: A French school of poetry active between 1860 and 1880. In reaction to the excessive emotionalism of Romanticism, they sought a calm, detached style of poetry with precise, objective descriptions.
Pergolesi: Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, 1710-1736, was an Italian composer who was active in Rome and Naples. Known for his operas, comic intermezzos and musical comedies, he was a forerunner of W.A. Mozart's Musical Theater.
Philipp August: Philip II Augustus (1165-1223) was king of France from 1180-1223.
Papst Pius der Vierte: Giovanni Angelo Medici (1499-1565), pope from 1559 to 1565.
Marquise von Pompadour: Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (1721-1764), a mistress of King Louis XV of France. Intelligent, ambitious, and extravagant, she exerted strong influence at court, and was a patron of the arts.
Praxiteles: Praxiteles (400-330 B.C.) was a Greek sculptor who is best known for his statue of Aphrodite, completed approx. 340 B.C.
Racinens: Jean Racine, 1639-1699, one of the most famed and influential dramatists in the history of French literature.
Rahbeck: Probably Knud Lyne Rahbek, 1760-1830, a Danish poet who was Professor of Aesthetics in Copenhagen from 1809, as well as co-director of the Copenhagen theater. Writing in the style of Empfindsamkeit, he published articles in the moral weekly "Den Danske Tilskuer" and, with R. Nyerup and W. Abrahamson, produced the Danish "Folkeviser." At the turn of the 18th century, the most famed literary figures in Denmark collected in the "Bakkehus" in which Rahbek and his wife Kamma lived.
Raynal: Guillaume-Thomas-François Raynal (1713-1796) was one of the most celebrated thinkers and authors of the 18th century. Among his extensive writings, his Histoire philosophique des établissemens et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes appeared in 1770.
Rembrandt: Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606-1669) was one of the most famous and influential Dutch artists, who was particularly known for his dramatic use of shadow and light. His works include numerous portraits and portrayals of religious themes.
Robespierre: Maximilien de Robespierre (1758-1794), a French revolutionist and politician, leader of the Jacobin Club. A proponent of the Reign of Terror, he executed his opponents, including G. Danton, in 1794, an act for which he himself was executed that same year.
Rochambeau: Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau (1725-1807), a French general. After an extremely successful military career on the continent, he was sent in 1780 to America, where he disembarked in Rhode Island with 5000 men. He joined General Washington at New York, and helped bring the American Revolution to a successful close. In later years he served under Napolean. His memoirs appeared in 1809.
Rochow: Friedrich Eberhard von Rochow, 1734-1805, a pedagogue who was concerned about the education of teachers. He established Volksschulen on his lands to raise the educational level of the peasants, and instituted reforms in teaching methods.
Emil von Rousseau: The Swiss-born Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (1712-1778), was one of the most influential thinkers and authors of his time. His prescriptive novel Émile, ou l'Education appeared in 1762.
Peter Paul Rubens: Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) was a Flemish artist who produced religious, historical, allegorical and mythological paintings, as well as landscapes and portraits. His works include numerous nudes, especially of young women.
Sappho: Sappho was a Greek poetess who lived c. 600 B.C. on the island of Lesbos. She was considered to be the greatest lyric poet of her time.
Sarti: Giuseppe Sarti, 1729-1802, was an Italian composer who was active in Copenhagen, Venice, and Russia. He was most famed for his operas, which were written in the style of C.W. Gluck.
Schmidts Geschichte der Deutschen: Michael Ignatz Schmidt (1736-1794), a German historian. In 1778 he published the first two volumes of his Geschichte der Teutschen. Although he had planned a comprehensive history of the German people, his work was cut short by his death.
Schrökh: Johann Matthias Schröckh, (1733-1808), was a German evangelical theologian. From 1767 he was Professor of Poetry in Wittenberg; then, in 1775, he became Professor of History. He is known for his influential history of the Church, which was written from an enlightenment Protestant point of view.
Berthold Schwarz: Berthold Schwarz (Bertoldusniger) was a Franciscan monk living during the first half of the 14th century. He is best known as the Western inventor of gunpowder (1313).
Sokrates: Socrates was one of the greatest Greek tragedians, active in Athens c. 496-406 B.C.
Sophokles: One of the greatest Greek tragedians, active in Athens c. 496 B.C.-406 B.C.
Stolberge: The Stolbergs referred to in this text are the brothers Friedrich Leopold and Christian Graf zu Stolberg, and their sister Auguste Louise Gräfin zu Stolberg. Auguste Louise, 1753-1835, married Andreas Peter Graf von Bernstorff. She was a friend and confidante of the young J.W. Goethe, whose letters to her were published first in 1838. Christian, 1748-1821 was a poet and translator. He studied in Halle and Göttingen, where he belonged to the Hainbund. Influenced by F.G. Klopstock, his works reflect the style of Sturm und Drang. Like his sister, he was a friend of Goethe. Friedrich Leopold, also a translator and poet, studied and traveled with his brother. Though he was in contact with Goethe, he came closer to the Christian religious circle around Klopstock and M. Claudius, J.G. Hamann, J.G. Herder and J.G. Jacobi. His most mature writing reflected the stylistic characteristics of the Klassik.
Stormschen Novelle: Theodor Storm (1817-1888), German poet and author, became one of the most successful writers of novellas in the 19th century. Some of his best known works include Der Schimmelreiter and Immensee.
Struensee: Johann Friedrich Graf von Struensee 1737-1772 maintained an affair with the Danish queen. He came to prominence as a Danish statesman in 1771, when he ousted the Minister Johann Hartwig von Bernstorff. As a proponent of the Enlightenment, he began many reforms which raised the general prosperity of Danish society and permitted more freedoms to the citizens. He was overthrown and executed in 1772.
Sturz: Helferich Peter Sturz, 1736-1779, was a German author belonging to the circle around F.G. Klopstock in Copenhagen. He came into Danish service in 1762 under Andreas Peter von Bernstorff (1735-1797, nephew of Johann Hartwig von Bernstorff), but was dismissed in 1772 in conjunction with the Struensee affair. He was best known for his essays and travel journals.
Sulzer: Johann Georg Sulzer, (1720-1779) a German philosopher and pedagogue. His work Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste, which appeared during 1771-74, has been acclaimed as one of the fundamental works of German Classicism.
Swedenborgs: Emanuel von Swedenborg (1688-1772), a Swedish natural scientist and theosophist. After making significant contributions to scientific research, Swedenborg began in 1736 to receive religious visions. He retired from public life and turned entirely to religious writing; over time he developed his own mystical theology.
Tasso: Torquato Tasso, 1544-1595, was one of the greatest Italian poets. His work exerted great influence on later English authors.
Tertullian: Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian (160-225) one of the earliest significant authors of the Christian faith.
Thomson: James Thomson (1700-1748) was an Anglo-Scottish poet. His poem "The Seasons" aroused a great deal of attention, and is often considered to be the beginning of Nature poetry. It was set to music by F. J. Haydn in 1801.
Tiedge: Christoph August Tiedge (1752-1841), a poet with connections to Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim. From 1803 he was Elisa von der Recke's travel companion and close associate, moving with her in 1819 to Dresden.
Tischbeine: A family of artists active in the 18th and 19th centuries in Germany.
Tizian: Tiziano Vecelli (Titian), an Italian artist who is recognized as one of the greatest masters of the High Renaissance. Among his works are depictions of religious, mythological and historical themes. Although his birthdate is uncertain (1476/77 or 1488/90), he died in 1576.
Vestris: Gaetano Vestris (1729-1808), an Italian dancer who made his debut in 1748 as a soloist in the Paris opera. By 1751 he was considered to be the premier dancer of his time, and was often referred to as a Tanzgott.
Voß: Johann Heinrich Voß, 1751-1826, translator and author in the style of Empfindsamkeit, studied theology and archaeology in Göttingen. In 1775 he assumed the publication of the Göttinger Musenalmanach.
Wagenseil: Christian Jakob Wagenseil, 1756-1839 was a German author who wrote dramas, poetry, literary almanacs, and literature for children.
Weßel: Probably Johan Herman Wessel, 1742-1785, a Norwegian-Danish author, teacher and translator who was famed for his parodies, comic stories and witty verse.
*Wieland: Christoph Martin Wieland 1733-1813. A poet often considered to be the best representative of the literary Rococo in Germany. A prolific author, he was the friend of J.W.L. Gleim and Johann Georg Jacobi.
*Wieland: Christoph Martin Wieland, 1733-1813, a German poet and translator whose work blends Enlightenment and Rococo styles. He translated 22 of Shakespeare's plays into German, as well as works by Horace and Lucian. From 1773-1789 he edited Der deutsche Merkur.
*Wieland: Christoph Martin Wieland, 1733-1813, was a poet often considered to be the best representative of the literary Rococo in Germany. A prolific author, he was the friend of J.W.L. Gleim and J. G. Jacobi. Sophie von La Roche maintained a long correspondence with Wieland, who also served as her editor.
*Wielands: Christoph Martin Wieland (1733-1813), an author often considered to be the best representative of the German literary Rococo. He was closely connected with Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, Johann Georg Jacobi, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Friedrich Schiller.
Wille: Johann Georg Wille, 1715-1808. Called to Paris in 1736, where he was court etcher and a member of the Academy. His work was distinguished by an extraordinarily meticulous technique.
Hugo Wolf: Hugo Wolf (1860-1903), was an Austrian composer best known for his collections of art songs, which offer settings of texts by poets such as E. Mörike, J.W. Goethe, G. Keller and J. Eichendorff. He also composed choral and chamber music, and operas.
Youngs: Edward Young (1683-1765), an English poet who recorded his thoughts on life, death and immortality in extensive verse. His works found great sympathy in Germany during the period of Empfindsamkeit, and exerted an influence on the authors of both the Storm and Stress period and Romanticism.