Abt: Thomas Abbt, 1738-1766, a German philosopher and author, was G.E. Lessing's successor as editor of the Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend. His treatise Vom Verdienste was written in 1765.
Ambrosius: Saint Ambrosius 340-397, an important figure in early Christianity. In 374 he became the Bishop of Mailand. Throughout his life he wrote many theological treatises, fought against heretics, and composed numerous hymns.
Ariost: Ludovico Ariosto, 1474-1533, an Italian poet.
Aspasia: One of the most famous women in Greek history, Aspasia came to Athens soon after 450 B.C. She was well educated, and played an important role in Athenian intellectual life.
Augustinus: Saint Augustine 354-430, one of the greatest theological writers of the early Christian church. A deep thinker, he is best known for his Confessions, a record of his spiritual development and inner conversion.
Mark Aurel: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 121-180 Emperor of Rome from 161-180, during which time he engaged ceaselessly in wars to protect the empire. Strongly influenced by Stoic philosophy, he advocated self-discipline and the faithful fulfillment of duty. He is best known for his Meditations.
Bach:Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, 1714-1788, a son of Johann Sebastian Bach. Schooled by his father, C.P.E. Bach became one of the most important musicians of his time. A key figure in the transition from contrapuntal music to the homophonic style of the Classical period, he greatly influenced the work of F.J. Haydn.
Bachs:Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach, 1732-1795, a son of Johann Sebastian Bach. Beginning in 1756, he was active as Kapellmeister in Bückeburg.
Bach: Probably referring to the compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach, 1685-1750, one of the most influential composers and musicians in the history of Western music. This reference could, however, also be to the work of one of his sons.
Baggessen: Probably Jens Baggessen, 1764-1826, a Danish poet whose works were known both in Germany and Denmark. He was a transition figure between the Enlightenment and the Romantic.
Basedow: Johann Bernhard Basedow, 1724-1790, an advocate of the Enlightenment who pushed for an educational atmosphere that included physical activity and play. He believed that schools should be directed by the state, rather than the church.
Bausischen: Johann Friedrich Bause, 1738-1814. An etcher who reproduced in copper portraits of prominent contemporaries painted by Oeser and A. Graff. From 1766 he taught at the Kunstakademie in Leipzig.
Benda: Probably Georg Benda, 1722-1795, a composer who served as Kapellmeister in Gotha from 1750-1778. A proponent of the Singspiel, he gained acclaim for his melodramas.
Bernstorf: A German aristocratic family located in Mecklenburg from 1300. This reference is probably to Johann Hartwig Ernst Graf von Bernstorff, 1712-1772, who led Danish foreign policy from 1751-1770, when he was supplanted by Count Struensee. Bernstorff was one of the first to grant freedom to the peasants on his lands, and was a mentor of artists and scholars throughout his life.
Bertrand: Elie Bertrand, 1712-1785, a Swiss theologian and minister, was distinguished for his sermons and his writings about natural science. His work Voyez le Thérinon ou les journées de la montagne appeared in 1777.
Böcklinsches Farbenmärchen :Arnold Böcklin, 1827-1901, a Swiss artist who began by painting landscapes, then moved to depictions of mythological figures as symbols of natural forces. His work is often characterized by glowing colors and sharp, clear lines.
Bodes: Johann Elert Bode, 1747-1826, was a German astronomer. Director of the observatory in Berlin, in 1776 he founded the Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch.
Bonnett: Charles de Bonnet, 1720-1793, a Swiss naturalist whose ideas on the relationship of the psyche to the actions of nerves influenced G.E. Lessing, J.K. Lavater and J.W. Goethe.
Bossuet: Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, 1627-1704, French Theologian and pulpit-orator, was known particularly for his gifts as a speaker. His literary works belong to the French classic.
Bouillon: Gottfried von Bouillon, c. 1060-1100, Duke of Niederlothringen (Lorraine), a leader in the First Crusade.
Franz Xaver Bronner: Franz Xaver Bronner, 1758-1850, a Benedictine monk who left the monastery to become a teacher, poet and librarian in Switzerland. His autobiography is considered to be an excellent reflection of the historical and intellectual mood of his time.
Buckle: Henry Thomas Buckle, 1821-1862, was a British cultural historian who, following the lines of Positivistic philosophy, attempted to establish scientifically exact laws of historical development.
Naturgeschichte von Büffon: Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon 1707-1788, was one of the best-known naturalists of his time. Among his most important works was the 44-volume Allgemeine und spezielle Naturgeschichte which began in 1749.
Bürger: Gottfried August Bürger, 1747-1794, a poet in the style of Sturm und Drang who was mentored by J.W.L. Gleim. He was best known for his ballad "Lenore."
Königin Christina: Queen Christina, 1626-1689, ascended to the Swedish throne in 1644. A highly educated woman with ties to R. Descartes, she refused to marry. In 1654 she abdicated the throne and relocated to the intellectual milieu of continental Europe.
Cicero: Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106-43 B.C. a famed orator. Often considered to be the founder of Latin prose and the father of tolerant humanity in the West, he helped through his writings to introduce the Greek intellectual world to Rome.
Clementi: Muzio Clementi, 1752 (1746)-1832, an Italian pianist and composer of instrumental and keyboard music. His sonatas and sonatinas for the piano are still widely played.
Charlotte Corday :Charlotte de Corday d’Armont (1768-1793), a great-granddaughter of P. Corneille, was a proponent of J.J. Rousseau’s ideas. In 1793, at the beginning of the Reign of Terror, she murdered J.P. Marat, President of the Jacobin Club, as he was in the bath. She was subsequently executed; her deed has been immortalized in various literary and artistic works.
Correggio: Antonio Correggio, (1484-1534), an Italian artist active in Correggio and Parma.
Cramer: Johann Andreas Cramer, (1723-1788), was an evangelical theologian and author. He was called to Copenhagen as the German court chaplain in 1754. A friend of C.F. Gellert and F.G. Klopstock, he served as a literary critic for Klopstock's journal Der Nordische Aufseher. Among other works, he published the Allgemeine Gesangbuch für Schleswig-Holstein, which was in use from 1780-1887.
Cronegks: Johann Friedrich Freiherr von Cronegk (1731-1785) wrote dramas, poetry, did theatrical works and satire, in addition to publishing a moral weekly.
Danton: Georges Jacques Danton (1759-1794), a French revolutionist who helped to organize the Reign of Terror in 1792, then later pushed for its end, an “indulgent” action for which he was executed in 1794.
Dehmels ‘Zwei Menschen’: Richard Dehmel (1863-1920), a German poet with close ties to D. von Liliencron, was influenced both by the revolutionary sentiment of Naturalism, and by F. Nietzsche’s philosophical insights. Dehmel’s works celebrate the cosmic power of Eros in an attempt to solve the problem of isolation in the modern world. His narrative poem “Zwei Menschen” appeared in 1903.
Dostoyevsky: Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (1821-1881), an extremely influential Russian author whose novels and stories are deeply religious, reflecting concern for human suffering, and characterized by a probing psychological analysis of humanity.
Ernst: Ernst I, der Fromme, 1601-1675, was raised to the rank of duke in 1640.
König Ernst August: Probably Ernst Augustus (1771-1851), the son of King George III of England. An energetic defender of aristocratic authority and privilege, at his ascension to the throne as King of Hannover in 1837, he canceled the constitution which had been established in 1833, and dismissed seven professors of the University in Göttingen who protested his actions.
Onkel Eulers: Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), a Swiss mathematician who, in addition to his contributions to mathematics and science, wrote philosophically about the problems of Existence.
Ewald: Johannes Ewald, 1743-1781, Danish poet and dramatist.
Eyk: Probably Jan van Eyck, 1390-1441, a Dutch artist.
Fabritius: Probably Johann Christian Fabricius, 1745-1808, an entomologist and professor of Natural History in Kiel. A student of C. von Linnaeus, he distinguished insects according to the organs of the mouth.
Fenelons: François de Salignac de la Mothe Fénelon, 1651-1715, a French theologian who wrote several works propounding his ideas on education. He was named by Louis XIV as tutor for the king's grandchild.
Johann Fischart: Johann Fischart (1546-1590) is one of the most well-known German satirists of the 16th century. Among his works are many protestant Streitschriften.
Galen: After Hippocrates, Galen (129-199) was the most important doctor in the ancient world. He was personal physician to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
*Gellert: Christian Fürchtegott Gellert, 1715-1769. Connected with J.C. Gottsched, Gellert wrote numerous fables and stories which illustrated the enlightenment ideal of virtue. Through his publications he became in essence the teacher and educator of the middle class.
*Gellerts: Christian Fürchtegott Gellert (1715-1769), whose work is often considered to be exemplary of Enlightenment literature. His writings include fables, stories, and religious odes and songs.
Genlis: Countess Stéphanie-Félicité du Crest de Saint-Aubin, (1746-1830) was a French author and pedagogue. Governess to the sons of King Louis Philippe of France ("the Citizen King," 1773-1850), she wrote educational comedies for children, and later historical and social novels.
Gerstenberg: Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg, 1737-1823, was a poet and literary critic who entered the Danish service in 1760. He belonged to the circle around F.G. Klopstock in Copenhagen.
Gessner: Salomon Gessner, 1730-1788, was a Swiss poet and artist in the circle around K.W. Ramler, F. Hagedorn and E.C. von Kleist. He wrote numerous nature idylls, painted landscapes, and worked with porcelain and copperplate etching.
*Gleim: Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, 1719-1803, was best known for his Anacreontic poetry, though he composed fables, odes, epigrams and parodies as well. He was closely associated with J.G. Jacobi, F.G. Klopstock, and J.J.W. Heinse.
*Gleims: Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim (1719-1803), during the Enlightenment one of the principal producers of anacreontic verse; he also wrote poetry, fables, odes and epigrams. Gleim was closely connected with the authors Johann Peter Uz, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, Johann Georg Jacobi, and Johann Jakob Wilhelm Heinse.
Gobineaus Rassentheorie: Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (1816-1882), French author and diplomat, propounded the theory that each race possesses particular unchangeable traits and abilities. In his opinion, the germanic Aryans were the elite race which was destined to rule all others.
Gothe: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1749-1832, one of Germany's most famed and influential authors.
Graun: This probably refers to Karl Heinrich Graun, 1704-1759, an opera singer and composer whose oratorios were enjoyed into the 19th century. His brother, Johann Gottlieb Graun, 1703-1771, was one of the finest instrumental composers of the northern school, after C.P.E. Bach.
Guido: Probably Guido da Siena, an Italian artist active in Siena from 1270.
Guimard: Marie-Madeleine Guimard Despréaux (1743-1816) was a celebrated French dancer who made her debut at the Comédie-Française in 1759, then was engaged by the Opéra in 1762. She soon became one of the most acclaimed dancers in France. In 1787 she married Jean-Étienne Despréaux and retired from the stage.
Darwin-Häckelschen Theorien: Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) a German zoologist and philosopher, was a passionate proponent of Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution in Germany. Through works such as his “General Morphology” (1866), which elucidates fundamental laws of biogenetics, he helped to reshape the study of biology.
Hamilton: Probably Gavin Hamilton, 1723-1798, one of the pioneers of Clacissism. An associate of A.R. Mengs and J.J. Winckelmann in Rome, his depictions of Homeric themes, which were reproduced in copper by D. Cunego, created a sensation when they first appeared.
Haidn: Franz Joseph Haydn, 1732-1809, an Austrian conductor and prolific composer of both vocal and instrumental music, crucial in the development of the classical symphony and the string quartet. His music exerted a great influence on W.A. Mozart and G.F. Handel.
Hartmann: Gottlob David Hartmann (1752-1775), a friend of Johann Jacob Bodmer and Johann Kaspar Lavater, wrote as a developing author satires, philosophical treatises and patriotic poetry. He was summoned by Duke Peter von Kurland in 1774 to fill the philosophy chair at the Gymnasium in Mitau. While there, he developed numerous sketches for further poetic work, but his productivity was cut short by his early death in 1775.
Harvee: William Harvey, (1578-1657) a British doctor and anatomist who discovered the circulation of the blood, about which he published important treatises.
Heinel: Anna Friederike Heinel, (1752-1808), was a German dancer who studied with J.G. Noverre, and danced as prima ballerina in Stuttgart, Berlin and Paris. In 1766 she became the first dancer to perform the pirouette. She married Gaetano Vestris.
Heinrich dem Löwen: Heinrich der Löwe (1129-1195) was Duke of Saxony from 1142-1180, during which time he conquered large tracts of territory, and established Braunschweig as his residence. In 1168 he married Mathilde, the daughter of Henry II of England. In his later years he was stripped of most of his territorial holdings, in the end being limited to Braunschweig-Lüneberg.
Herder: Johann Gottfried von Herder, 1744-1803, historian, philosopher and critic. A representative of Empfindsamkeit, he was greatly interested in the collection and preservation of folksongs. His ideas exerted a great influence on German Romanticism, and on Herder's close associate J.W. Goethe.
Hieronymus: Hieronymus (347-419/420), was one of the most fruitful thinkers of all the Church Fathers. Among his greatest achievements was his translation of the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate); he also wrote numerous commentaries on the Bible.
Hiller: Probably Johann Adam Hiller, 1728-1804, a musician and composer located in Leipzig from 1756. He was particularly known for his Singspiele, and for his publication of the first German-language Musikzeitschrift.
Hippokrates: Hippocrates (c. 460-375 B.C.) was a Greek doctor who was known for his writings about disease. His name has become identified with scientific thinking, high medical ethics and highly developed medicinal art.
Hirzels Geschichte eines philosophischen Bauers: Hans Caspar Hirzel, 1725-1803, was a Swiss author, physician and alderman who was connected with many German Enlightenment thinkers such as J.G. Sulzer, J.W.L. Gleim and K.W. Ramler. His book Die Wirtschaft eines philosophischen Bauers first appeared in 1761; an expanded version was published in 1774.
Hölty: Ludwig Heinrich Christoph Hölty, 1748-1776. As a theology student in Göttingen he became associated with G.A. Bürger and J.H. Voß. A lyrical nature poet, his work anticipates the poetry of F. Hölderlin and J.W. Goethe.
Homer: Homer, one of the most acclaimed Greek poets, lived during the 8th century B.C. He was the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Iwans des Schrecklichen: Ivan IV “the Terrible” (1530-1584), a Czar of Russia who ascended the throne when he was three years old. Suspicious to the point of paranoia, he often employed brutal punishments. In 1580 he killed his own son and heir in a fit of rage.
Jakobi: Probably Johann Georg Jacobi (1740-1814), a German poet with ties to J. W. Goethe and J. J.W. Heinse. In 1766 he became Professor of Philosophy in Halle, and in 1784 Professor of Literature in Freiburg.
Jean Paul: Jean Paul is the pen name adopted by Jean Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825), a German author and teacher. In his writing he sought to portray the beautiful and sublime in a style which often tends toward sentimentality. His work is characterized by a tone of ironic humor. In his aesthetic treatises, he was one of the first to attempt a theory of the novel.
Justinian der Erste: Justinian I, 483-565, a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 527-565, was active in spreading the early Christian Church. He is best known for his work in consolidating and setting down the laws for his realm. The statutes recorded in his masterpiece, Corpus Juris, formed the basis for the laws of many later nations.
Kästner: Abraham Gotthelf Kästner 1719-1800. A mathematician and poet, known particularly for his epigrams. He was a member of the circle around Johann Christoph Gottsched.
Katharina der Zweyten: Born Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst, a German princess, Catherine II (1729-1796) married the Russian heir in 1745. In 1762, when he ascended the throne as Peter III, Catherine began her reign, which lasted from 1762 to her death in 1796. She was particularly concerned with education and the arts.
Kauffmann: Angelika Kauffmann, 1741-1807, an acclaimed artist and etcher. She was named a member of the Florentine Academy, and was later accepted into the Royal Academy in London. Her home became a meeting point for numerous artist and authors, including J.W. Goethe.
Kleist: Ewald Christian von Kleist, 1715-1759, a well-known poet/soldier, was the friend and associate of G.E. Lessing, J.W.L. Gleim, F. Nicolai and other Enlightenment authors. Influenced by the work of A. Haller and F.G. Klopstock, he was best known for his odes, idylls and elegies.
Klingerschen Radierung: Max Klinger (1857-1920), a German etcher, sculptor and artist was best known for his etchings, in which, using exquisite technique, he gave shape to the vivid world of his imagination.
*Klopstock: Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, 1724-1803, was an extremely influential German poet, whose poems, odes and hymns are still read. He began work on his masterpiece The Messiah in 1745, publishing sections of the epic in 1748. In 1751 he was called to Copenhagen by the Danish King to serve as court poet. Presaging the direction that would be taken by the German Romantics, in his work he attempted to replace Greek and Roman mythology with old Germanic traditions.
*Klopstock: Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (1724-1803), author of poetry and drama, including many deeply religious works. He is now best known for his verse epic Der Messias.
Klügels: Georg Simon Klügel, (1739-1812), a German mathematician who taught in Helmstedt from 1767, then in Halle from 1787. He worked to improve trigonometry, and edited the Enzyklopädie oder zusammenhängender Vortrag der gemeinnützigsten Kenntnisse, a 3-volume encyclopedia and mathematical dictionary which appeared in 1782-84.