Caroline von Wolzogen was born the eldest child of an aristocratic family in Rudolstadt. She was was raised with her younger sister, Charlotte.
After the death of their father, the family's financial situation was undesirable, despite their belonging to the lower nobility. At just 16 years of age Caroline became engaged to Ludwig von Beulwitz, through the arrangement of both families, which lead to sure financial security as von Beulwitz was a very prominent local courtier. In 1874 they married.
In the early 1790s, inspired by her friend Schiller, at that time a young and poor Weimar poet and husband of her sister, Charlotte, she began writing. Her most famous work is of course 'Agnes von Lilien'.